Words and phrases used in Just-in-time Enterprise Systems


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3 D's or San Ke
The D's in English stand for dirty, dangerous, and difficult; the K's in Japanese stand for kitanai, kiken, and kitsue.
5-S or Go Esu
5 points of workplace organization and maintenance. More than a quality improvement tool, this philosophy is applicable to daily living.

Japanese English Definition Example
Seiri Structurize Segregate and discard Throw away rubbish
Seiton Systematize Arrange and identify 30-second document retrieval
Seiso Sanitize Clean and inspect daily Individual cleaning responsibility
Seiketsu Standardize Revisit frequently Transparency of storage
Shitsuke Self-discipline Motivate to sustain Do 5-S daily
Andon
Signal mechanism which indicates a potential problem or work stoppage.
Autonomation
The concept of adding an element of human judgment to automated equipment so that the equipment becomes capable of discriminating against unacceptable quality, and the automated process becomes more reliable. A contraction of "autonomous automation." [correlates with Jidoka]
Balanced Facility
Facility's resources are in balance with market demand.
Balanced Workload (correlates with Heijunka)
Customer requirements are spread out evenly over work periods to foster a consistent and smooth tempo of activity. Keeping total operational volume as constant as possible.
Bottleneck or Constraint
Any area, workstation, or process that limits throughput; any problem area that slows down the whole.
Business Process Value Stream Analysis & Mapping
Analyzing and improving activities associated with a business process and/or system using value stream mapping methods
Case Study
Presentation and discussion of an example successful organization by referencing its starting state then detailing the improvements what were made to achieve an significantly better future state
CCR or Capacity Constraints Resources
The capability of a system to perform its expected function and the materials, supplies, machinery, and personnel available.
Cellular Manufacturing
Arranging machines in the correct process sequence, where operators remain within the cell, work-in-process (WIP) flows between successive work stations without queuing, and materials are presented to them from outside.
Chaku-Chaku Line
Work cell where machines off-load parts automatically so operators can take a work unit directly from one machine to the next without waiting. [Same as Load-Load]
Continuous Improvement (also referred to as kaizen)
The relentless and continuous, yet incremental process of finding and eliminating waste.
Continuous Flow
Customer requirements flowing from one stage to the next without stopping
Crossdock
Activity which moves inbound arriving materials and product receipts directly into an outbound transport conveyance. An example would be moving pallets of arriving trailer loaded freight directly into its assigned outbound transport trailer in a single move.
Cycle Time
Time that elapses between completion of an acceptable work unit and the completion of the next acceptable work unit
Current State
The methods used currently by an organization to complete work units.
Dock-to-Dock
All time required and actions which occur as a unit of material progresses from an organization's receiving area (e.g., receiving dock) until a finished work unit or product is available to ship through the organization's shipping area (e.g., shipping dock)
Dock-to-Point of Use (POU)
All time required and actions which occur as a unit of material progresses from an organization's receiving area (e.g., receiving dock) until it arrives at the point where it is consumed (e.g., its point-of-use)
Enterprise Value Stream Analysis & Mapping
Analyzing and improving activities associated with an entire enterprise business system using value stream mapping methods. An example might be analyzing and improving activities associated with the business and administrative processes/systems required to prepare a customer's order for manufacturing.
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
Business management software system which integrates most business functions, such as, production, materials planning, acounting, order processing, shipping, etc.
Extended Value Stream Analysis & Mapping
Analyzing and improving activities associated with an entire system using value stream mapping methods. An example might be analyzing and improving activities associated with an organization's entire supply chain system.
External Setup or OED (outer exchange of die)
Elements of tooling set-up that can be performed safely while the machine is still running
FIFO-First-in, First-out
First-in, first-out (FIFO) refers to the orchestration of work, such that, orders or work units progress sequentially throughout the enterprise value stream, resulting in the absolute shortest progression/transit time achievable and, thus, highest possible velocity flow
Flow Kaizen
Radical team improvement activity, that affects flow through a large segment of an organization's value streams. [can be called a Kaikaku or Radical kaizen]. A Flow Kaizen, or value stream improvement activity, looks at an entire manufacturing, logistics, business, etc. system's flow with the goal of reducing the time required and improving the connectivity between each of the stages of the flow.
Focused Factory
Assignment or dedication of capacity at stages of a flow to a finite group of work units or products. An example might be the dedication of several machines to a defined product family to achieve lead time savings and increase efficiency by reducing the scope of changeover between product work units and enabling continuous flow of WIP.
Focused Teaming (Point manufacturing perspective)
Applying cellular manufacturing principles where the WIP remains stationary while process stage focused and organized teams index or pulse from one WIP item to the next every prescribed cycle period.
Free Stock
Material that is not accounted for in detail and replenished in bulk issues as it is consumed. Examples might be work gloves, lubricants, fasteners, etc.
Fulfillment Distribution
Drop shipping customer requirements directly from their creation point directly to the end customer.
Future State (vision)
Policies, procedures, methods, resources, and timing envisioned to be applied in the future to achieve significant improvements in providing customer value.
Group Technology
Approach of aggregating similar items during production to standardize methods and mechanisms to reduce handling and changeover requirements.
Heijunka
Keeping total manufacturing volume as constant as possible, leveled production. [Same as Production Smoothing]
Hoshin Kanri
System of forms and rules that encourage employees to analyze situations, create plans for improvement, conduct performance checks, and take appropriate action. Primary benefit is to focus activity on the key things necessary for success. [Same as Policy Deployment]
IED or Internal Setup (inner exchange of die)
Elements of tooling set-up that must be performed while the machine is stopped.
Jidoka
The concept of adding an element of human judgment to automated equipment so that the equipment becomes capable of discriminating against unacceptable quality, and the automated process becomes more reliable. A contraction of "autonomous automation." [Same as Autonomation]
JIT or Just-In-Time
Manufacturing just what is needed, just when it is needed, in the exact quantity needed.
Just-in-time (JIT) Distribution
Through application of Toyota's JIT logistics principles, reducing the lead time necessary for generation of a shipable customer order, shipment of the order, then transport of the order to the customer to an absolute minimum.
Just-in-time Distribution Center (JDC)
Activity which enhances customer value (i.e., speed of delivery) by organizing its facility and operations to support short lead time, zone assigned, time wave configured, order completion batch picking activities. An example would be a warehouse designed with popular items closer to the shipping area, pick activities governed by designed time increments (i.e., waves), relegated to pickers assigned to zones, in such a manner that all of the components of a customer's order are picked in different zones simultaneously (i.e., batch) and arrive at the packaging area at nearly the same time.
Just-in-time Consolidation Center (JCC)
Activity which separates bulk inbound arriving materials and product receipts directly through a breakdown area then into staged collection areas designated for their outbound destination. An example would be moving pallets of arriving trailer loaded freight directly into a pallet breakdown area and its contents quickly moved directly to collection staging areas for its assigned outbound transport trailer. In this example, material is handled and moved only three times.
Just-in-time Logistics
Organizing the transport, storage, and internal movement of items such that only only exactly what is needed is transported or moved, exactly when it is needed, and in exactly the quantity that is needed.
Just-in-time Processing Center (JPC)
Activity situated closer to a customer than the originating provider with the goal of reducing need satisfaction lead time and inventory requirements by postponing final specific customer configuration of an item until a firm customer requirement specifically dictates what value to add to the item before delivery. An example would be holding a small inventory of wheel rims and tires close to the wheel consuming customer, then mounting the exact needed tire on the exact needed rim immediately on determination of the specific need then quickly delivering the completed wheel over a short distance to the customer, just-in-time.
Just-in-time Supply Chain
Organizing the transport, storage, and internal movement of inbound supply chain items such that only exactly what is needed is transported in or moved within, exactly when it is needed, and in exactly the quantity that is needed.
Kaikaku (Flow Kaizen)
Radical improvement, usually in a business process, that affects the future value stream. [Same as Flow Kaizen]
Kaizen Culture
State within an organization where the a large majority of its employees personally desire to improve every aspect of the organization's business.
Kaizen
The relentless process of finding and eliminating waste. Continuous improvement through incremental improvements. [Same as Point or Process Kaizen]
Kanban
Method of operations control in which materials and work-in-process (WIP) are not produced or delivered until downstream activities signal their needs to upstream activities. An example might be a visual signal which triggers pull of WIP from upstream work areas based on actual usage.
Lean Cross-Walks
The result of Toyota's automobile production system, (TPS) principles and practices successfully translated to be applicable in radically differing manufacturing, logistics, services, and business operations.
Lean Transformation
The transformation of an organization's culture from one of pushing customer value through the organization's systems to one of pulling them through and developing a desire within all employees to continuously improve the value they provide to their customers.
Lean Transformation Champion
Organizational leader which serves as the driving force for the organization's transformation to lean. His or her role is to ensure that all necessary resources are made available and that the transformation remains focused and on schedule
Lean Transformation Leader
Organizational leader possessing special skills in persuading people to support lean transformation and planning, organizing, and facilitation skills required to assure success in continuous improvement activities. His or her role is to oversee the organization's transformation plan, provide technical expertise, education, and training, ensure that information is shared, and ensure that the transformation process is standardized and complete throughout the organization.
Load-Load Line
Work cell where machines off-load parts automatically so operators can take a piece directly from one machine to the next without waiting. [Same as Chaku-Chaku]
Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul (MRO)
Activities with missions to maintain, repair, or overhaul products and/or components. Involves rapid procurement of needed materials, storage of materials until required for MRO, planning and control of MRO activities, accomplishment of maintenance, repair, and overhaul tasks, and validation of return of products and/or components to operational capability.
Materials
Commonly used to classify material required to create a product during manufacture as opposed to the item being produced, which is called work-in-process (WIP).
Materials Delivery
Commonly describes the processes used to move materials from a receiving dock or internal stockroom to the point-of-use (POU).
Materials Requirements Planning (MRP)
Process of analytically determining and procuring exact material requirements to produce specific quantities of manufactured products.
Materials Planning
Process of determining and procuring material requirements to produce specific quantities of manufactured products.
Muda
Any activity or action that adds cost but no real value to a product or service; waste. [Same as Non-Value-Added]
Mura
Variations in process quality, cost and delivery; unevenness, lack of reliability.
Muri
Unreasonableness; demand exceeds capacity; overburden, forcing.
Nagara System
Accomplishing two or more activities with one motion; simultaneous production.
Non-Value-Adding
Any activity or action that adds cost but no real value to a product or service; waste. [Same as Muda]
Operating to a Tempo
Refers to an organization or activity reliably and consistently operating at a rhythm or cadence which closely correlates with the demands customers place on the activity.
OTED or One-Touch Exchange of Dies
Reducing die setup to a single step. [See SMED]
Pacing Operations
Defining a specific profile for activities and performance expected consistently from a system. Pacing is possible only when an organization or activity reliably and consistently operates at a rhythm or cadence which closely correlates with the demands customers place on the activity (i.e., Operating to a Tempo).
Pitch
A management performance measure which describes the amount of time needed in an operational area to complete one defined unit of work or group of units of work.
Pilot Process
Selection of a value stream or segment of a value stream within an activity to serve as the first or "Pilot" flow for improvement through transformation to lean principles and practices.
Plan, Do, Check, Act (PDCA)
An improvement cycle based on the scientific method of proposing a change in a process, implementing the change, measuring the results, and taking appropriate action (Deming's Cycle or Deming's Wheel)
Point Kaizen (also described as a Process kaizen)
A one-week Kaizen Workshop with front-line employees has become standard PRACTICE in manufacturing companies. Improvements are focused on a specific goal, like forming a cell or reducing the changeover time for one machine. This is called Point Kaizen because it improves only one point in the value stream.
Point-of-Use (POU)
Point within a process or system where materials are consumed or installed within a larger component or product.
Poka Yoke
Methods to help people to avoid (or prevent them from making) mistakes (i.e., Mistake-proofing).
Policy Deployment
System of forms and rules that encourage employees to analyze situations, create plans for improvement, conduct performance checks, and take appropriate action. Primary benefit is to focus activity on the key things necessary for success. [Same as Hoshin Kanri]
Process Kaizen
The relentless process of finding and eliminating waste. Continuous improvement through incremental improvements. [Same as Point or Kaizen]
Production Smoothing
Keeping total manufacturing volume as constant as possible, leveled production. [Same as Heijunka]
Project Requirements Planning (PRP)
Process of analytically determining and procuring exact material requirements to produce a specific number of finished products. An example would be complete assembly of a new airplane.
Pull System or Process (correlates with kanban)
Method of operations control in which materials and work-in-process (WIP) are not produced or delivered until downstream activities signal their needs to upstream activities.
QFD or Quality Function Deployment
Using a cross-functional team to reach consensus about final product specifications, in accord with the wishes of the customer.
Quick Changeover
Changing over a process to produce a different product in the most efficient manner.
Receiving-to-POU (Point-of-use) (same as Dock-to-POU)
All time required and actions which occur as a unit of material progresses from an organization's receiving area (e.g., receiving dock) until it arrives at the point where it is consumed (e.g., its point-of-use)
Regulating Flow (versus smoothing demand)
Actions taken internally to smooth and balance customer requirements over time for requirements mix, volume, work content, time requirements, and priority before requirements are sent to the operational area for execution.
Right-size
Matching tooling and equipment to the job and space requirements of lean production.
Sensei
Teacher with deep knowledge of lean principles and practices.
Shop Supply (in support of maintenance activities)
Process of procuring, securing, storing, and delivering materials needed directly for maintenance servicing and repair activities (i.e., unpredictable independent demands). Usually managed by an automated maintenance shop control system (MMS) which procures only needed materials in the smallest lot size available, then nets operational requirements against items remaining in the stockroom (i.e., left over items from previous maintenance requirements, etc.) to order only materials that are needed.
Single-Order-Coupled-Flow (SOCF)
Enterprise single-order-coupled-flow (SOCF) describes the objective of organizing seamless pull progress of subcomponents of a customer's requirement through the enterprise's activities in a planned linked (i.e., coupled) manner so all subcomponent work will be completed when the subcomponents are needed for final processing (e.g., product assembly, order entry, materials purchasing, etc.) Practicing SOCF provides an opportunity to sustain a first-in, first-out (FIFO) sequence of these orders, or work units throughout the enterprise value stream, resulting in the absolute shortest progression/transit time achievable and, thus, highest possible velocity flow
SMED or Single Minute Exchange of Dies
From the last good part to the first good part on the new set-up accomplished in anything less than 10 minutes. Also known as Single-digit Setup. [See One-Touch Exchange of Die]
Smoothing Demand (versus regulating demand)
Actions taken externally through collaboration with customers that smooth and balance the flow of customer requirements over time for requirements mix, volume, work content, time requirements, and priority.
Standard Work
Pre-determined sequence of tasks for the operator to complete within the net operating time divided by customer requirements.
Stockroom (versus Warehouse)
Primarily, a storage activity which stores only materials needed directly for operational needs (i.e., predictable dependent demands). Usually managed by an automated materials requirement planning (MRP) system which orders only needed materials in the smallest lot size available, then nets operational requirements against items remaining in the stockroom (i.e., left over items from previous customer requirements, etc.) to order only materials that are needed.
Stop-The-Line Authority
Power given to workers to stop the process when abnormalities occur, allowing them to prevent the defect or variation from being passed along.
Sub-Optimization
Optimization of sub processes. This will be a cost to the system. Management's job is to optimize the entire system, not individual components or sub processes.
Supply Process & Activity Profiling
Stocked item demand history profiling is uses in designing storage facilities with the objective of decreasing the lead time required to pick, package, and ship customer requirements.
Supermarket or Storefront
An internal substation for staging parts before they are subsequently delivered to the POU.
Supplier Development
Process of helping to strengthen suppliers during their lean transformation, specifically in the areas required for them to serve as superior just-in-time suppliers.
Synchronized Feeder Processes
Connecting the operations of a supplier with the enterprise's operations, such that, needed supplier components can be produced just prior to their need at the customer.
Takt Time
Daily production number required to meet orders in hand divided into the number of working hours in the day. Example: With available work time at 27,600 seconds per shift, and customer demand at 460 pieces per shift, takt time is 60 seconds.
TOC or Theory of Constraints
Removing constraints to increase throughput while decreasing inventory and operating expenses.
Throughput
The rate the system generates money through sales.
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
Set of techniques to ensure that every machine in a production process is always able to perform its required tasks. Requires; total participation of all employees, seeks total productivity of equipment, and addresses the total life cycle of equipment in maintenance practices.
Value Adding
Any activity or action that adds real value to a product or service.
Value Analysis
Analyzing the value stream to identify value-added and non-value-added activities.
Value Stream
The set of specific actions required to bring a specific product or service through three critical management tasks of any business: problem-solving, information management and physical transformation.
Value Stream Management
Alignment of management responsibilities within an enterprise, such that, a single element (e.g., person or team) is primarily empowered and responsible for all progressive stages that provide their customers with value.
Value Stream Map or Value Chain Map
A visual picture of how material and information flows from suppliers, through manufacturing, to the customer, including calculations of total cycle time and value-added time. Example Value stream mapping is a way of graphically depicting a company's business processes, then looking for ways to streamline inventory, reduce waste, and cut production time. Maps can be drawn of current and future states, and may include the supply chain. The value stream map always starts with the customer.
Visual Controls
Creating standards in the workplace that make it obvious if anything is out of order so every employee can see it and take appropriate action.
Visual Control Board (VCB) (usually used at process work cell level)
Visual work smoothing and balancing mechanism (e.g., heijunka box, etc.) which supports sequencing a work cell's value adding activities into a visual process level script or plan for the work cell to follow in satisfying the customer's requirements to his expectations.
Visual Management
System enabling anyone to quickly spot abnormalities in the workplace, regardless of their knowledge of the process.
Visual Operations Management (Visual Production Control)
Visually smoothing and balancing an enterprise's work to support orchestration of the enterprise's value adding activities to maximize satisfaction of customer requirements.
Visual Order Board (VOB) (usually used at Customer Service level)
Visual work smoothing and balancing mechanism (e.g., heijunka box, etc.) which supports orchestration of the enterprise's value adding activities necessary to satisfy customer orders into a visual preliminary script or plan for the enterprise to follow in satisfying the customer's requirements to his expectations.
Visual Planning Board (VPB) (usually used at Production Control level)
Visual work smoothing and balancing mechanism (e.g., heijunka box, etc.) which supports orchestration of the enterprise's value adding activities necessary to satisfy customer orders into a visual production control level script or plan for the operational segments of the enterprise to follow in satisfying the customer's requirements to his expectations.
Warehouse (Versus Stockroom)
Primarily, a storage activity which stocks materials at a defined level (i.e., stockage level) that are anticipated to be needed in the future (i.e., to satisfy unpredictable independent demands). Usually managed by an automated warehouse management system (WMS) which automatically orders large replenishment quantities when stock quantities fall to a specified reorder point.
Warehouse Management System (WMS)
Automated warehouse management system which maintains accountability of inventory by recording on-hand quantities versus a defined stock level. Automatically orders replenishment quantities when stock quantities fall to a specified reorder point.
Work Content Leveling / Balancing (form of Heijunka)
Customer demand time and effort requirements are spread out evenly over work periods to foster a consistent and smooth tempo of activity. Keeping total operational volume as constant as possible.
Work Center
Assignment or dedication of capacity at stages of a flow to a finite work group for specific work units or products. An example might be the dedication of several machines to a defined tem of workers to achieve efficiency savings and reduce the scope of changeover between product work units which enables continuous flow of WIP within the work center.
Work-in-process (WIP)
Customer requirements, in the form of orders, document, products, etc., as they progress toward completion through value adding stages within the enterprise. WIP is distinguished from materials which are consumed during creation of WIP.
Yield
Produced product related to scheduled product.
Zero Quality Control (ZQC)
Concept, that by enthusiastically implementing mistake proofing (poka-yoke) mechanisms and pursuing vigorous source, self, and successor inspection approaches, an enterprise can achieve zero defects and/or mistakes.